Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio | Healthmatters.io (2024)

What is the Albumin/Globulin Ratio?

The Albumin to Globulin ratio (A:G) is the ratio of albumin present in serum in relation to the amount of globulin. Serum is the clear fluid part of blood that contains no blood cells and clotting components. This serum contains proteins, which are known as serum protein.

Serum protein consists of main proteins:

Albumin proteins: Albumin, which makes up 50 percent of serum protein, reflects your nutritional status. Albumin proteins transport substances like hormones, fatty acids, and drugs throughout your body.

Globulin proteins: Globulin proteins, which are made by your immune system, make up around 48 percent of serum protein. These proteins indicate the state of your immune function and the severity of any inflammationTrusted Source.

The ratio can be interpreted only in light of the total protein concentration. Very generally speaking, the normal ratio in most species approximates 1:1. For example, high total protein with a normal A:G ratio suggests dehydration, while the same protein with a low A:G ratio would indicate hyperglobulinemia (= an abnormally high concentration of globulins in the circulating blood plasma).

Typically, an A/G ratio test is done as part of a routine protein blood test. It’s used to check your general health, including nutritional status and immune function.

What does the Albumin/Globulin Ratio measure?

An A/G ratio test measures albumin and globulin, the two main proteins in your blood. This simple blood test is used to monitor your nutritional status, immune function, and overall health.

What do Albumin/Globulinresults mean?

The normal range for albumin/globulin ratio is over 1, usually around 1 to 2. That’s because there’s a bit more albumin than globulin in serum protein.

If your body is producing too much or too little of either protein, your A/G ratio will be classified as high or low.

High or low A/G ratios are particularly associated with kidney and liver disease. A low A/G ratio can also indicate chronic infections, cancers, and more. A high A/G ratio is associated with dehydration, malnutrition, and other gastrointestinal conditions.

Serum albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) has been shown in several recent studies to be able to predict the prognosis of a number of illnesses, including cancer, chronic renal disease, heart failure, low thyroid activity, and peritoneal dialysis. If your doctor feels any of your levels are too high or low, you may need to have more precise blood or urine tests.

These tests can be used to check on the condition of your liver or kidneys if you have already experienced an aberrant test result or have been previously diagnosed with an underlying problem. Additionally, testing can be used to keep track of prescription drug side effects that may have an influence on the liver or kidneys.

Your doctor might check your A/G ratio if you’re experiencing unexplained weight loss, extreme fatigue, or swelling.

What is Albumin and what are its functions?

The most prevalent plasma protein produced by the liver is Albumin. Blood leaks from blood arteries are prevented by Albumin. Additionally, it aids in the movement of hormones, medications, vitamins, and other critical elements throughout the body. The liver is where Albumin is produced.

What are globulins and what are their functions?

The majority of the blood's other proteins are globulins. Globulins transport nutrients throughout the body and aid in the fight against infection. The liver creates some globulins. The immune system produces others. It is less water soluble than Albumin. The terms alpha, beta, and gamma globulins refer to several types of globulins.

When is the Albumin/Globulin Ratio tested?

A comprehensive metabolic panel test frequently includes a total protein and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio test to evaluate the Protein in the blood. The test can help diagnose several kinds of health problems, including liver and kidney disease, as well as nutritional deficiencies.

The test also compares the levels of Globulin and Albumin in your blood. The ratio between Albumin and Globulin is referred to as the A/G ratio. If your A/G ratio or total protein levels are abnormal, this could indicate a major health issue.

This blood test is also used to screen and monitor various health conditions, including kidney disease, chronic infections, various cancers, and more.

If you experience symptoms that point to aberrant protein levels, you could also require this test. These include:

  • Swelling of the ankles, feet, legs, and/or abdomen brought on by an abundance of fluid in your tissues
  • Fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).
  • Blood in the urine, a common symptom of kidney disease
  • Spider-like blood vessels on the skin.
  • those who are more likely to suffer from renal or liver illness
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure

References:

Mutlu EA, Keshavarzian A, Mutlu GM. Hyperalbuminemia and elevated transaminases associated with high-protein diet. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jun;41(6):759-60. doi: 10.1080/00365520500442625. PMID: 16716979.

Thakkinstian A, Tran H, Reeves G, Murch S, Attia J. A clinical decision rule to aid ordering of serum and urine protein electrophoresis for case-finding of paraproteins in hospitalized inpatients. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Oct;23(10):1688-92. doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0712-z. Epub 2008 Jul 30. PMID: 18665429; PMCID: PMC2533374.

Bae JC, Seo SH, Hur KY, Kim JH, Lee MS, Lee MK, Lee WY, Rhee EJ, Oh KW. Association between Serum Albumin, Insulin Resistance, and Incident Diabetes in Nondiabetic Subjects. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2013 Mar;28(1):26-32. doi: 10.3803/EnM.2013.28.1.26. Epub 2013 Mar 25. PMID: 24396647; PMCID: PMC3811792.

Cho HM, Kim HC, Lee JM, Oh SM, Choi DP, Suh I. The association between serum albumin levels and metabolic syndrome in a rural population of Korea. J Prev Med Public Health. 2012 Mar;45(2):98-104. doi: 10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.2.98. Epub 2012 Mar 31. PMID: 22509450; PMCID: PMC3324721.

Kadono M, Hasegawa G, Shigeta M, Nakazawa A, Ueda M, Yamazaki M, f*ckui M, Nakamura N. Serum albumin levels predict vascular dysfunction with paradoxical pathogenesis in healthy individuals. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Mar;209(1):266-70. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.09.006. Epub 2009 Sep 12. PMID: 19819455.

JEEJEEBHOY KN, BOUCHER BJ, HARTOG M. THE EFFECT OF GROWTH HORMONE ON ALBUMIN TURNOVER IN MAN. Metabolism. 1965 Jan;14:67-74. doi: 10.1016/0026-0495(65)90082-x. PMID: 14252344.

Rahman MZ, Begum BA. Serum total protein, albumin and A/G ratio in different grades of protein energy malnutrition. Mymensingh Med J. 2005 Jan;14(1):38-40. PMID: 15695952.

Hausmann O, Warnatz K. Immunodeficiency in adults a practical guide for the allergist. Allergo J Int. 2014;23(7):261-268. doi: 10.1007/s40629-014-0030-4. Epub 2014 Nov 6. PMID: 26120536; PMCID: PMC4479546.

Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors. Chapter 101 - Serum Albumin and Globulin, Boston: Butterworths; 1990. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK204/]

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Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio | Healthmatters.io (2024)

FAQs

What is a concerning albumin-globulin ratio? ›

The normal range for albumin/globulin ratio is over 1 , usually around 1 to 2. That's because there's a bit more albumin than globulin in serum protein. If your body is producing too much or too little of either protein, your A/G ratio will be classified as high or low.

Should I be worried if my Ag ratio is high? ›

High A/G ratio: This can be a sign of disease in your liver, kidney, or intestines. It's also linked to low thyroid activity and leukemia. If your doctor feels any of your levels are too high or low, you may need to have more precise blood or urine tests.

Can dehydration cause high albumin globulin ratio? ›

Dehydration may also lead to higher albumin levels. Making sure you have had enough water before the test will give an accurate result. If the band (tourniquet) is placed around your arm for too long during blood collection, this can also make your albumin level seem high.

How do you treat low albumin globulin ratio? ›

Treatment of the underlying condition that caused hypoalbuminemia can increase your level of albumin back to normal. Treatment for hypoalbuminemia could include: Eating a well-balanced diet to address malnutrition and heart disease. Taking blood pressure medication to address kidney disease or heart failure.

Can the Ag ratio be lowered? ›

The A/G ratio can be decreased with short-term problems that cause inflammation, such as tissue trauma or infection, chronic inflammatory conditions, and nutritional problems.

What is the average albumin globulin ratio in chronic liver disease? ›

The normal threshold value of the albumin-to-globulin ratio is 1.0 to 2.0. Underproduction of albumin or overproduction of globulin leads to decrease of the albumin-to-globulin ratio. An inversed albumin-to-globulin ratio (IAGR, <1.0) is often found in patients with severe inflammatory liver diseases or cirrhosis.

Why is my albumin ratio high? ›

An albumin blood test checks levels of albumin in your blood. Low albumin levels might indicate a problem with your liver, kidneys or other health conditions. High albumin levels are typically the result of dehydration or severe dehydration. The test is very quick and doesn't carry any serious risks.

What are symptoms of high albumin levels? ›

Weakness. Jaundice, a condition that causes your skin and eyes to turn yellow. Swelling and/or pain in your abdomen (belly) Swelling in your ankles and legs.

What are the symptoms of too much protein in your blood? ›

Common symptoms associated with High Blood Protein may include the following.
  • Fatigue and weakness.
  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Swelling in the extremities.
  • Changes in urine colour or frequency.
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort.
  • Loss of appetite.
Jan 17, 2024

What is an alarming globulin level? ›

Results more than 3.5 g/dL for globulin and more than 2.5 for an albumin/globulin ratio are considered high. But being on bed rest for too long, dehydration, and problems during the blood draw can also cause a high reading. Your healthcare provider will likely order additional tests.

Can drinking water lower albumin? ›

Higher volume of water intake is associated with lower risk of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease. Medicine.

Should I worry if my globulin is high? ›

Globulin and albumin are proteins found in the blood. Levels that are too high can indicate autoimmune disease, infections or cancers. Low levels may be a sign of liver or kidney problems. Your provider will order additional tests to make a diagnosis.

Is the 2.3 Ag ratio too high? ›

A test result with a ratio less than 1 or more than 2.5 is considered bad.

What affects albumin globulin ratio? ›

A high A/G ratio may indicate kidney disease, antibody deficiencies, or severe dehydration. A low A/G ratio can also indicate kidney disease as well as liver disease, chronic infections like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), autoimmune diseases like lupus, and certain cancers.

Can exercise cause a high A/G ratio? ›

Physical Activity: Regular exercise has been linked to improved albumin synthesis and immune function. Engaging in a balanced fitness routine can positively influence the A/G ratio.

Is 3.7 globulin level high? ›

Normal Results

Normal value ranges are: Serum globulin: 2.0 to 3.5 grams per deciliter (g/dL) or 20 to 35 grams per liter (g/L) IgM component: 75 to 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or 750 to 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) IgG component: 650 to 1,850 mg/dL or 6.5 to 18.50 g/L.

Is 8.6 total protein high? ›

The normal range is 6.0 to 8.3 grams per deciliter (g/dL) or 60 to 83 g/L. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories.

Should I be worried about slightly high protein in blood? ›

High blood protein is not a specific disease or condition, but it might indicate you have a disease. High blood protein rarely causes symptoms on its own. But sometimes it is uncovered while you're having blood tests done for a separate issue or symptom.

References

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